Human Brain and Intelligence   Leave a comment


Evolution of human brain and intelligence

[Article in Hungarian] Lakatos L1Janka Z. 1Pszichiátriai Magánrendelés, Székesfehérvár. forumhumanum.szfvar@t-online.hu

Abstract

The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are able not only to use, but also to make tools, and they can be taught how to produce quite difficult ones. Some brain characteristics connected to human consciousness and intelligence, like brain asymmetry, the “consciousness” or “theory of mind” based on mirror neurons are surprisingly present in monkeys. Nevertheless, the human intelligence is extremely flexible and different, while the animal intelligence is specialised, producing one thing at high level. Based on recent knowledge the level of intelligence is related anatomically to the number of cortical neurons and physiologically to the speed of conductivity of neural pathways, the latter being dependent on the degree of myelinisation. The improvement of cognitive functions including language is driver by the need of more effective communication requiring less energy, the need of social dominance, the competitive advantages within smaller groups and species or against other species, which improves the opportunity for obtaining food. Better mental skills give also sexual dominance, which is beneficial for stabilising “cleverness” genes. The evolutionary history of human consciousness emphasises its adaptive survival helping nature. The evolution of language was the basic condition of conscious thinking as a qualitative change, which fundamentally differentiate us from all other creatures.

 

 

 2016 Aug 2;113(31):8753-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1604855113. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brainWang Z1Wang N1Li Z1Xiao F2Dai J3.

Abstract

Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain.

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Posted October 24, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

BIOPHOTON n BUDDHA   Leave a comment


Lord Buddha said 2500 years ago, ‘Be a LIGHT’. The Greatest Human on Earth said in both the metaphorical term as well as in the scientific through VIPASSANA MEDITATION. His expressions have always been multi-meaning, its meaning manifested at the level of the behavior, knowledge and science. Now today, the advancement in the physical science has added more value to the truth of the Buddha’s words. It means to raise the consciousness.

We are nothing but total light, the existence itself is the light. We communicate through light. Light is the consciousness. 

Sanders C.L, Retired Professor in Nuclear Engineering/Radiobiology, wrote a scientific paper on ‘ Speculations about Bystander and Biophotons’. In his abstract, Mothersill and many others during the last hundred years have shown that cells and now whole animals may communicate with each other by electromagnetic waves called biophotons. This would explain the source of the bystander phenomena. These ultra-weak photons are coherent, appear to originate and concentrate in DNA of the cell nucleus and rapidly carry large amounts of data to each cell and to the trillions of other cells in the human body. The implications of such a possibility can be wonderfully important.

Biophotons may represent a complex cell-to-cell communication that relies upon speed of light transmission. The physics of light seems to fit the biological observations. Light is the most efficient and fastest mediator of information in the world. The coherent property of biophotons may have a profound effect on their ability to influence information transfer. Frequency coding gives light a capability of encoding information from DNA in biophotons.

Physical properties of biophotons and their biological functions. Chang JJ1. Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China. changjj@ibp.ac.cn

Abstract

Biophotons (BPHs) are weak photons within or emitted from living organisms. The intensities of BPHs range from a few to several hundred photons s(-1) x cm(-2). BPH emission originates from a de-localized coherent electromagnetic field within the living organisms and is regulated by the field. In this paper based on the experimental results of Poisson and sub-Poisson distributions of photocount statistics, the coherent properties of BPHs and their functions in cell communication are described. Discussions are made on functions which BPHs may play in DNA and proteins functioning including the process of DNA replication, protein synthesis and cell signalling and in oxidative phosporylation and photosynthesis.

 2014 Oct 5;139:71-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.12.008. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain.

Tang R1Dai J2.
1 Wuhan Institute for Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.
2 Wuhan Institute for Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address: jdai@mail.scuec.edu.cn.

Abstract

The transmission and processing of neural information in the nervous system plays a key role in neural functions. It is well accepted that neural communication is mediated by bioelectricity and chemical molecules via the processes called bioelectrical and chemical transmission, respectively. Indeed, the traditional theories seem to give valuable explanations for the basic functions of the nervous system, but difficult to construct general accepted concepts or principles to provide reasonable explanations of higher brain functions and mental activities, such as perception, learning and memory, emotion and consciousness. Therefore, many unanswered questions and debates over the neural encoding and mechanisms of neuronal networks remain. Cell to cell communication by biophotons, also called ultra-weak photon emissions, has been demonstrated in several plants, bacteria and certain animal cells. Recently, both experimental evidence and theoretical speculation have suggested that biophotons may play a potential role in neural signal transmission and processing, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system. In this paper, we review the relevant experimental findings and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of biophoton signal transmission and processing in the nervous system.

 

 2010 Mar;9(3):315-22. doi: 10.1039/b9pp00125e. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography.

Sun Y1Wang CDai J. Wuhan Institute for Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Minyuan Road 708, Wuhan 430074, China.

Abstract

Cell to cell communication by biophotons has been demonstrated in plants, bacteria, animal neutrophil granulocytes and kidney cells. Whether such signal communication exists in neural cells is unclear. By developing a new biophoton detection method, called in situ biophoton autography (IBA), we have investigated biophotonic activities in rat spinal nerve roots in vitro. We found that different spectral light stimulation (infrared, red, yellow, blue, green and white) at one end of the spinal sensory or motor nerve roots resulted in a significant increase in the biophotonic activity at the other end. Such effects could be significantly inhibited by procaine (a regional anaesthetic for neural conduction block) or classic metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that light stimulation can generate biophotons that conduct along the neural fibers, probably as neural communication signals. The mechanism of biophotonic conduction along neural fibers may be mediated by protein-protein biophotonic interactions. This study may provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of neural communication, the functions of the nervous system, such as vision, learning and memory, as well as the mechanisms of human neurological diseases.

PMID:  20221457                               DOI: 10.1039/b9pp00125e

Biophotons, microtubules and CNS, is our brain a “holographic computer”?

Author information

1
Departement of General Psychiatry, University of Vienna, 1090 Waehringer Gürtel 18-20, Austria. friedrich.grass@chello.at

Abstract

Several experiments show that there is a cell to cell communication by light in different cell types. This article describes theoretical mechanisms and subcellular structures that could be involved in this phenomenon. Special consideration is given to the nervous system, since it would have excellent conditions for such mechanisms. Neurons are large colourless cells with wide arborisations, have an active metabolism generating photons, contain little pigment, and have a prominent cytoskeleton consisting of hollow microtubules. As brain and spinal cord are protected from environmental light by bone and connective tissue, the signal to noise ratio should be high for photons as signal. Fluorescent and absorbing substances should interfere with such a communication system. Of all biogenic amines nature has chosen the ones with the strongest fluorescence as neurotransmitters for mood reactions: serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. If these mechanisms are of relevance our brain would have to be looked upon as a “holographic computer”.

PMID:  14962620

 

DOI: 10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00308-6

 

Posted October 23, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

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Buddhism in India   Leave a comment


The ‘Hindutva’ forces, so powerful in India today, make much of the argument that historically Hinduism has been a tolerant religion, absorbing and co-opting its opponents rather than using force against them, and they, in contrast, depict Islam as a violent, prosyletising religion. This argument fails when we consider the problem of historical evidence.
Brahmanism was intolerant of ‘heretics’(pashandas) is quite clear from the Sanskrit sources themselves. The story of Rama killing Shambuk is symbolic of violence exerted both against ‘low’ castes who overstepped their role and against ‘heretical ascetics’. The Arthashastra is quite specific in classifying the samana sects along with untouchables: ‘Heretics and Candalas shall stay in land allotted to them beyond the cremation ground’ (Arthasastra 1992: 193). More specifically, Kautalya says, in Rangarajan’s translation, ‘Ascetics who live in ashramas and Pashandas [who live in reserved areas] shall do so without annoying each other; they shall put up with minor irritations. Those who are already living in an area shall make room for newcomers; any one who objects to giving room shall be expelled’. The passage makes it clear that pashandas were forced into something like ‘reservations’.
The Arthashastra’s general orientation suggests that Buddhists were looked upon as being equivalent to untouchables; and a Maharashtra historian, B.G. Gokhale, makes a similar point when he notes that Buddhists in the late period in Maharasthra were targets of a resurgent Brahmanism, noting that locally at Ellora and elsewhere some of their units were known as Dhedwada and Maharwada (Gokhale 1976: 118). It is not without reason that 19th and 20th century Dalit leaders such as Ambedkar and Iyothee Thass argued that Dalits were descendents of Buddhists who had been transformed into untouchables by Brahmans.
As Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty’s study of the Gupta period puranas makes clear, Brahmanical attitudes towards pashandas hardened over time. Tolerance in the period of the Upanishads and Asoka turned into a prescription for murder in the puranas. As the Linga Purana describes in its version of history, the Dharma was distroyed because of the Buddha-avatar, a ‘chastiser’ was born called Pramitra who ‘destroyed barbarians by the thousands and killed all the kings who were born of Sudras, and cut down the heretics…. At the age of 32 he set out, and for 20 years he killed all creatures by the hundreds and thousands, until the cruel act reduced the earth to nothing but ashes’ (O’Flaherty 1983: 123). The version she cites from the Matsya Purana is equally stark:
Those who were unrighteous—he killed them all: those in the north and in the central country, and the mountain people, the inhabitants of the east and the west, those in the area of the highlands of the Vindhyas, and those in the Deccan, and the Dravidians and Sinhalas, the Gandharas and Paradas, the Pahlavas and Yavanas and Sakas, Tusakas, Barbaras, Svetas, Halikas, Darada, Khasas, Lampakas, Andhras and the races of the Cola. Turning the wheel of conquest, the powerful one put an end to the Sudras, putting all creatures to flight….
O’Flaherty thus calls the Matsya Purana, Vayu Purana, Brahmananda Purana, Vishnu Purana and Bhagwat Purana ‘the basic scriptures of Gupta paranoia and insecurity’. In fact, Brahmanic paranoia would be more accurate, since as she makes clear, Gupta practice was actually quite tolerant.3 Buddhist sources point more specifically to a great deal of violence in the millennial-long conflict of Buddhism and Brahmanism. Hsuan Tsang, for example, gives many stories of violence, including the well-known story of the Shaivite king Sashanka cutting down the Bodhi tree, breaking memorial stones, and attempting to destroy other images (Beal 1983: II, 91, 118, 121). He also mentions a great monumental cave-temple construction in a mountainous area in Vidarbha, said to have been done by the Satavahana king under the instigation of Nagarjuna, that was totally destroyed.
The late 16th century and early 17th century Tibetan Buddhist chronicler Taranatha describes many more incidents, referring to the ‘three hostilities’ against Buddhism, three periods when Buddhism was under violent attack. The first was that of Pushyamitra Shunga at the end of the Mauryan period:
The Brahmana king Pusyamitra, along with other tirthikas, started war and they burned down numerous monasteries from Madhyadesa to Jalandhara. They also killed a number of vastly learned monks. But most of them fled to other countries. As a result, within five years the Doctrine was extinct in the north (Taranatha 1990: 121).
The ‘second hostility’ appears to be that of Mihirakula (the fiercely anti-Buddhist king who raided north India in the 6th century), though Taranatha does not use the name and instead says a ‘Persian’ king destroyed Magadha with a Turuska army, ruined many temples and damaged Nalanda. The ‘third hostility’ had appears in the south, with less overt reliance on state power; it describes two Brahman beggars, one of whom gains magical powers to start a fire that consumes 84 temples and huge numbers of valuable documents in the country of Krishnaraja (Taranatha 1990:138, 141–42).
When fierce debates with Brahmanic pandits began to take place, these were often marked by violence. In Orissa, writes Taranatha, after one debate the tirthikas became victorious and destroyed many temples of the insiders. They robbed in particular the centers for the Doctrine and took away the deva-dasas [vihara slaves]….[Many debates were lost in the south and] as a result, there were many incidents of the property and followers of the insiders being robbed by the tirthika Brahmans (Taranatha 1990: 226).
Finally, while Turks destroyed Vikramasila and Odantapura in the 12th century, it is noted that this happened because they had mistaken them for forts and in fact the king had stationed soldiers there (Taranatha 1990: 318–19): the Turks made a simple mistake!
This destruction is taken as the final blow and marks the end of Taranatha’s chronicle, as monks fled from there to Nepal, to the south-west of India, and to south-east Asia. Violence in history is easily forgotten. A major example in India may be the Kalinga war, which is attested to by Asoka’s own inscriptions. Visiting the country of Kalinga in the 7th century, Hsuan Tsang described it as once having a dense population but then being depopulated, but gave as explanation only a story about a fabulous rishi who cursed the people. In the plethora of Buddhist legends about Asoka, which stress his wickedness before the conversion, the devastating results of his own major war were not included. The ravages of time have also played a role in erasing the Buddhist heritage of India. The glory of Ajanta’s paintings could survive until British times simply because the cave region was so inaccessible, while other monuments were simply buried—until recovery in the 19th and 20th century led to a new process of theft (with important relics ending up in European museums or private collections), destruction due to failures in maintenance including the failure of the Archaeological Survey of India today! (Menon 2001; Kalidas 2001).
In the end, the patronage of kings was important both for Buddhism and Brahmanism, and the gradual conversion of kings to Brahmanic ideology proved decisive. Rulers gave financial support to Brahmans, took the responsibility of enforcing varna laws and discriminating against ‘heretical’ sects, and refused state protection to their persons and property—if they did not actively murder and loot them themselves. Buddhists philosophised this decline; the notion of constant change was after all a major theme. The idea that the Dhamma would fade with time can be seen in Taranatha, who notes in regard to Pushyamitra Shunga that ‘as predicted, the first 500 years constituted the period of the flourish of the Law of the Teacher, and the next 500 years the period of its decay’ (Taranatha 1990:121) and writes that ‘by the influence of time, the Law was also not as bright as before.’ Thus Taranatha’s own interpretation is often one that simply sees a natural process of decay, interpreted with periodic re-establishment of the Dhamma by brilliant Bodhisattvas and teachers. His very way of telling stories of constant destruction and recovery of manuscripts and teachings suggests the fundamental transitoriness taught by Buddhism. At the same time, also shown in the stories is a many-levelled, fierce and often violent conflict at the social level.
{Excerpts from the book ‘Buddhism in India’ by Gail Omvedt}

Posted October 9, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

Swayambhu   1 comment


The word swayambhu has a deeper meaning, so please do not use ‘MONKEY TEMPLE’ in publication. I’m against it. The rephrasing diffuses the true meaning that oust general human being from reaching to the truth to their potential, understanding of self, yourself.

Legend says that once the Kathmandu valley was a lake in which Swayambhu hill existed as an island. On top of that hill stood a natural crystal stupa.

Swayambhu, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, goes back to ancient times. The earliest written record of the Great Stupa of Swayambhu is a 5th century stone inscription. Honored by kings, monks, and pilgrims alike, the stupa has been restored and repaired on numerous occasions. In 1349 it was damaged by an invading Muslim army and later repaired by King Saktimalle Bhalloka. In 1505, the yogin Sangye Gyaltsen added the wheel and spire to the stupa’s dome. In 1614 the 6th Shamarpa had shrines built into the stupa in the four cardinal directions.

Language N Civilization   Leave a comment


Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society’s effect on language. It differs from sociology of language, which focuses on the effect of language on societyLanguage is one of the most powerful emblems of social behavior.

Let’s look at EGYPT’s hieroglyphs and today’s emoji’s. Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Even a single emoji’s explain everything and information receptor comprehends it. So, it can be taken as an inference that EGYPT was in advance societal age 4000.  Emojis’ save time, energy of advancing societies. It is readily acceptable and practical to technologically advancing societies.

So, what is a logic here? Rationally, when the societal conscious level diminishes to lower degree, people need more explanation, description in order to make them understand what a messenger is delivering. Advancing societies use little words, graphics or any signs, because for intelligent little words are enough. To them, a picture paints a thousand words. When societies advances, there will always be fewer words, or signs or emojis to express rather than explanation, description, commenting. It is a sign of growth of civilization. People may lost in translation, therefore, in tech world the mobile apps, the logo of a company, apps, renews and defines the definition language for communication and dialect. Only in the age of rage, war, conflicts, misunderstandings, they need more words for communication.  Vocabularies are for the advanced societies.

May be the most advance societies will use only the mind to mind. Mind reading plays a vital role, a game changer in communication or let’s say wifi system or other frequency system that use up less energy than talking or typing.

Egyptian hieroglyphic Free Vector

Human beings have always looked at nature and searched for patterns. But what do patterns tell us? What about animals? Do they also recognize the patterns. Is pattern the language for another dimension, may be one of the common language of varied life forms of earth. Possibly, social animal behavioralist scientists studied that lemurs, rhesus monkeys are able to study the pattern language. Interesting right?

animal

Posted September 14, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

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GIANTS ON EARTH   Leave a comment


We all have read, heard about Gulliver’s story.

I see human are very naive or educated in a limited concept. Wake up, eat breakfast, lunch, dinner, sleep, earn money, make children is the normal. This normality is the disease that stops your growth of mind. Like a horse’s harness for control on mobility, our education system and mind system locked. Let’s open a heart and mind to new ideas, history. y not taught in school with recent, update education system?

These Giants Built Egypt pyramid, easy answer. Big size, Muscular, Spectacular, Warriors intelligent build Pyramid.


600 Million Year Old Fossils Of Tiny Humanoids Found In Antarctica, Anthropologists Baffled

http://sciencevibe.com/2018/04/06/600-million-year-old-fossils-of-tiny-humanoids-found-in-antarctica-anthropologists-baffled/?fbclid=IwAR3g8kbZpK3hKOmv2mkrnVXWiJmbO658qdBO0D1kAgO8mWykyR1y6BTkZ0k

Giant Axes found in Sumer
Image result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthPImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earth

Mars-Skeleton

UFO hunters claim this could be the skeleton of a giant alien on Mars.

Mermaid Skeleton

Mermaid Skeleton in National Museum in Copenhagen
mermaid found in bulgaria I dunno about this.... but its cool...MERMAIDS???????

Posted August 25, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

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Kirateswor Mahadev   Leave a comment


Historians have been able to find the names of 32 Kiranti rulers beginning with Yalamber who is even mentioned in the Mahabharata. A Kiranti army is said to have fought in the epic battle. Legend has it that when Krishna asked the Kiranti King Yalambar whose side he would take, the bold king replied, “The weaker/losing side.” On hearing this, Krishna is said to have beheaded the Kiranti king with such a terrific blow, that Yalambar’s head reached the Nepal valley .It is believed that the mask kept at the Akash Bhairav temple in Indrachowk belongs to Yalambar.

One of the kirati people attained the highest state through meditation, much above god level, but couldn’t able to attain the buddhahood state. Your definition needs more explanation. Kirati historical documents were burned at the singha durbar library inciendary. Also, Limbu, Kiratis are not from as you mentioned sindhu valley, but it is rather that Limbu, kiratis’s population, power, extended larger upto their sindhu place and beyound. Originally, Kiratis are not from sindhu. Kiratis were in Nepal long time even before Yalamber king. Look at the smell of Kathmandu valley soil, i smell only the kiratis.

If you read, Hindu’s god are rapist, psycho, culprits but potrait in a good manner. Human are so much slaved that they rely on such futile things. Even there’s no such things as someone will do something for you. Kirati people believe in the Karma, action, compassion, respect, meditative, powerful, cognitive, skills oriented.

Kirateswor mahadev is now the pashupati temple. It is not a Hindu temple by religion. Culprits in the game of religion, hindu omits the Kirateswor word before saying mahadev. In this way one day, these so called hindu people will claim that Jesus is also their one of their god. Trust me.  Now, in india, many of buddha’s monuments, pristine locations have been intentionally replaced with so called defiant, obstinate hindu, who are in the false view and should change for better. They must admit that they in fact have nothing.

IMG_20181006_051206

“Hangsam sibji” was the name of kirati who achieved the of the highest state of human state through meditation.

Why only these psycho fanatic group hindus are only allowed? To god, everyone should be allowed. In fact, i prefer the Buddha’s words.

 

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