Buddhism in India   Leave a comment


The ‘Hindutva’ forces, so powerful in India today, make much of the argument that historically Hinduism has been a tolerant religion, absorbing and co-opting its opponents rather than using force against them, and they, in contrast, depict Islam as a violent, prosyletising religion. This argument fails when we consider the problem of historical evidence.
Brahmanism was intolerant of ‘heretics’(pashandas) is quite clear from the Sanskrit sources themselves. The story of Rama killing Shambuk is symbolic of violence exerted both against ‘low’ castes who overstepped their role and against ‘heretical ascetics’. The Arthashastra is quite specific in classifying the samana sects along with untouchables: ‘Heretics and Candalas shall stay in land allotted to them beyond the cremation ground’ (Arthasastra 1992: 193). More specifically, Kautalya says, in Rangarajan’s translation, ‘Ascetics who live in ashramas and Pashandas [who live in reserved areas] shall do so without annoying each other; they shall put up with minor irritations. Those who are already living in an area shall make room for newcomers; any one who objects to giving room shall be expelled’. The passage makes it clear that pashandas were forced into something like ‘reservations’.
The Arthashastra’s general orientation suggests that Buddhists were looked upon as being equivalent to untouchables; and a Maharashtra historian, B.G. Gokhale, makes a similar point when he notes that Buddhists in the late period in Maharasthra were targets of a resurgent Brahmanism, noting that locally at Ellora and elsewhere some of their units were known as Dhedwada and Maharwada (Gokhale 1976: 118). It is not without reason that 19th and 20th century Dalit leaders such as Ambedkar and Iyothee Thass argued that Dalits were descendents of Buddhists who had been transformed into untouchables by Brahmans.
As Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty’s study of the Gupta period puranas makes clear, Brahmanical attitudes towards pashandas hardened over time. Tolerance in the period of the Upanishads and Asoka turned into a prescription for murder in the puranas. As the Linga Purana describes in its version of history, the Dharma was distroyed because of the Buddha-avatar, a ‘chastiser’ was born called Pramitra who ‘destroyed barbarians by the thousands and killed all the kings who were born of Sudras, and cut down the heretics…. At the age of 32 he set out, and for 20 years he killed all creatures by the hundreds and thousands, until the cruel act reduced the earth to nothing but ashes’ (O’Flaherty 1983: 123). The version she cites from the Matsya Purana is equally stark:
Those who were unrighteous—he killed them all: those in the north and in the central country, and the mountain people, the inhabitants of the east and the west, those in the area of the highlands of the Vindhyas, and those in the Deccan, and the Dravidians and Sinhalas, the Gandharas and Paradas, the Pahlavas and Yavanas and Sakas, Tusakas, Barbaras, Svetas, Halikas, Darada, Khasas, Lampakas, Andhras and the races of the Cola. Turning the wheel of conquest, the powerful one put an end to the Sudras, putting all creatures to flight….
O’Flaherty thus calls the Matsya Purana, Vayu Purana, Brahmananda Purana, Vishnu Purana and Bhagwat Purana ‘the basic scriptures of Gupta paranoia and insecurity’. In fact, Brahmanic paranoia would be more accurate, since as she makes clear, Gupta practice was actually quite tolerant.3 Buddhist sources point more specifically to a great deal of violence in the millennial-long conflict of Buddhism and Brahmanism. Hsuan Tsang, for example, gives many stories of violence, including the well-known story of the Shaivite king Sashanka cutting down the Bodhi tree, breaking memorial stones, and attempting to destroy other images (Beal 1983: II, 91, 118, 121). He also mentions a great monumental cave-temple construction in a mountainous area in Vidarbha, said to have been done by the Satavahana king under the instigation of Nagarjuna, that was totally destroyed.
The late 16th century and early 17th century Tibetan Buddhist chronicler Taranatha describes many more incidents, referring to the ‘three hostilities’ against Buddhism, three periods when Buddhism was under violent attack. The first was that of Pushyamitra Shunga at the end of the Mauryan period:
The Brahmana king Pusyamitra, along with other tirthikas, started war and they burned down numerous monasteries from Madhyadesa to Jalandhara. They also killed a number of vastly learned monks. But most of them fled to other countries. As a result, within five years the Doctrine was extinct in the north (Taranatha 1990: 121).
The ‘second hostility’ appears to be that of Mihirakula (the fiercely anti-Buddhist king who raided north India in the 6th century), though Taranatha does not use the name and instead says a ‘Persian’ king destroyed Magadha with a Turuska army, ruined many temples and damaged Nalanda. The ‘third hostility’ had appears in the south, with less overt reliance on state power; it describes two Brahman beggars, one of whom gains magical powers to start a fire that consumes 84 temples and huge numbers of valuable documents in the country of Krishnaraja (Taranatha 1990:138, 141–42).
When fierce debates with Brahmanic pandits began to take place, these were often marked by violence. In Orissa, writes Taranatha, after one debate the tirthikas became victorious and destroyed many temples of the insiders. They robbed in particular the centers for the Doctrine and took away the deva-dasas [vihara slaves]….[Many debates were lost in the south and] as a result, there were many incidents of the property and followers of the insiders being robbed by the tirthika Brahmans (Taranatha 1990: 226).
Finally, while Turks destroyed Vikramasila and Odantapura in the 12th century, it is noted that this happened because they had mistaken them for forts and in fact the king had stationed soldiers there (Taranatha 1990: 318–19): the Turks made a simple mistake!
This destruction is taken as the final blow and marks the end of Taranatha’s chronicle, as monks fled from there to Nepal, to the south-west of India, and to south-east Asia. Violence in history is easily forgotten. A major example in India may be the Kalinga war, which is attested to by Asoka’s own inscriptions. Visiting the country of Kalinga in the 7th century, Hsuan Tsang described it as once having a dense population but then being depopulated, but gave as explanation only a story about a fabulous rishi who cursed the people. In the plethora of Buddhist legends about Asoka, which stress his wickedness before the conversion, the devastating results of his own major war were not included. The ravages of time have also played a role in erasing the Buddhist heritage of India. The glory of Ajanta’s paintings could survive until British times simply because the cave region was so inaccessible, while other monuments were simply buried—until recovery in the 19th and 20th century led to a new process of theft (with important relics ending up in European museums or private collections), destruction due to failures in maintenance including the failure of the Archaeological Survey of India today! (Menon 2001; Kalidas 2001).
In the end, the patronage of kings was important both for Buddhism and Brahmanism, and the gradual conversion of kings to Brahmanic ideology proved decisive. Rulers gave financial support to Brahmans, took the responsibility of enforcing varna laws and discriminating against ‘heretical’ sects, and refused state protection to their persons and property—if they did not actively murder and loot them themselves. Buddhists philosophised this decline; the notion of constant change was after all a major theme. The idea that the Dhamma would fade with time can be seen in Taranatha, who notes in regard to Pushyamitra Shunga that ‘as predicted, the first 500 years constituted the period of the flourish of the Law of the Teacher, and the next 500 years the period of its decay’ (Taranatha 1990:121) and writes that ‘by the influence of time, the Law was also not as bright as before.’ Thus Taranatha’s own interpretation is often one that simply sees a natural process of decay, interpreted with periodic re-establishment of the Dhamma by brilliant Bodhisattvas and teachers. His very way of telling stories of constant destruction and recovery of manuscripts and teachings suggests the fundamental transitoriness taught by Buddhism. At the same time, also shown in the stories is a many-levelled, fierce and often violent conflict at the social level.
{Excerpts from the book ‘Buddhism in India’ by Gail Omvedt}
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Posted October 9, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

Swayambhu   1 comment


The word swayambhu has a deeper meaning, so please do not use ‘MONKEY TEMPLE’ in publication. I’m against it. The rephrasing diffuses the true meaning that oust general human being from reaching to the truth to their potential, understanding of self, yourself.

Legend says that once the Kathmandu valley was a lake in which Swayambhu hill existed as an island. On top of that hill stood a natural crystal stupa.

Swayambhu, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, goes back to ancient times. The earliest written record of the Great Stupa of Swayambhu is a 5th century stone inscription. Honored by kings, monks, and pilgrims alike, the stupa has been restored and repaired on numerous occasions. In 1349 it was damaged by an invading Muslim army and later repaired by King Saktimalle Bhalloka. In 1505, the yogin Sangye Gyaltsen added the wheel and spire to the stupa’s dome. In 1614 the 6th Shamarpa had shrines built into the stupa in the four cardinal directions.

Language N Civilization   Leave a comment


Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society’s effect on language. It differs from sociology of language, which focuses on the effect of language on societyLanguage is one of the most powerful emblems of social behavior.

Let’s look at EGYPT’s hieroglyphs and today’s emoji’s. Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Even a single emoji’s explain everything and information receptor comprehends it. So, it can be taken as an inference that EGYPT was in advance societal age 4000.  Emojis’ save time, energy of advancing societies. It is readily acceptable and practical to technologically advancing societies.

So, what is a logic here? Rationally, when the societal conscious level diminishes to lower degree, people need more explanation, description in order to make them understand what a messenger is delivering. Advancing societies use little words, graphics or any signs, because for intelligent little words are enough. To them, a picture paints a thousand words. When societies advances, there will always be fewer words, or signs or emojis to express rather than explanation, description, commenting. It is a sign of growth of civilization. People may lost in translation, therefore, in tech world the mobile apps, the logo of a company, apps, renews and defines the definition language for communication and dialect. Only in the age of rage, war, conflicts, misunderstandings, they need more words for communication.  Vocabularies are for the advanced societies.

May be the most advance societies will use only the mind to mind. Mind reading plays a vital role, a game changer in communication or let’s say wifi system or other frequency system that use up less energy than talking or typing.

Egyptian hieroglyphic Free Vector

Human beings have always looked at nature and searched for patterns. But what do patterns tell us? What about animals? Do they also recognize the patterns. Is pattern the language for another dimension, may be one of the common language of varied life forms of earth. Possibly, social animal behavioralist scientists studied that lemurs, rhesus monkeys are able to study the pattern language. Interesting right?

animal

Posted September 14, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

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GIANTS ON EARTH   Leave a comment


I see human are very naive or educated in a limited concept. Wake up, eat breakfast, lunch, dinner, sleep, earn money, make children is the normal. This normality is the disease that stops your growth of mind. Like a horse’s harness for control on mobility, our education system and mind system locked. Let’s open a heart and mind to new ideas, history. y not taught in school with recent, update education system?

These Giants Built Egypt pyramid, easy answer. Big size, Muscular, Spectacular, Warriors intelligent build Pyramid.

Giant Axes found in Sumer

Giant Axes found in Sumer
Image result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthPImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earthImage result for giants on earth

Mars-Skeleton

UFO hunters claim this could be the skeleton of a giant alien on Mars.

Mermaid Skeleton

Mermaid Skeleton in National Museum in Copenhagen
mermaid found in bulgaria I dunno about this.... but its cool...MERMAIDS???????

Posted August 25, 2018 by arjunlimbu in Uncategorized

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Kirateswor Mahadev   Leave a comment


Historians have been able to find the names of 32 Kiranti rulers beginning with Yalamber who is even mentioned in the Mahabharata. A Kiranti army is said to have fought in the epic battle. Legend has it that when Krishna asked the Kiranti King Yalambar whose side he would take, the bold king replied, “The weaker/losing side.” On hearing this, Krishna is said to have beheaded the Kiranti king with such a terrific blow, that Yalambar’s head reached the Nepal valley .It is believed that the mask kept at the Akash Bhairav temple in Indrachowk belongs to Yalambar.

One of the kirati people attained the highest state through meditation, much above god level, but couldn’t able to attain the buddhahood state. Your definition needs more explanation. Kirati historical documents were burned at the singha durbar library inciendary. Also, Limbu, Kiratis are not from as you mentioned sindhu valley, but it is rather that Limbu, kiratis’s population, power, extended larger upto their sindhu place and beyound. Originally, Kiratis are not from sindhu. Kiratis were in Nepal long time even before Yalamber king. Look at the smell of Kathmandu valley soil, i smell only the kiratis.

If you read, Hindu’s god are rapist, psycho, culprits but potrait in a good manner. Human are so much slaved that they rely on such futile things. Even there’s no such things as someone will do something for you. Kirati people believe in the Karma, action, compassion, respect, meditative, powerful, cognitive, skills oriented.

Kirateswor mahadev is now the pashupati temple. It is not a Hindu temple by religion. Culprits in the game of religion, hindu omits the Kirateswor word before saying mahadev. In this way one day, these so called hindu people will claim that Jesus is also their one of their god. Trust me.  Now, in india, many of buddha’s monuments, pristine locations have been intentionally replaced with so called defiant, obstinate hindu, who are in the false view and should change for better. They must admit that they in fact have nothing.

IMG_20181006_051206

“Hangsam sibji” was the name of kirati who achieved the of the highest state of human state through meditation.

Why only these psycho fanatic group hindus are only allowed? To god, everyone should be allowed. In fact, i prefer the Buddha’s words.

 

Buddha   Leave a comment


Maha-sihanada Sutta:
The Great Discourse on the Lion’s Roar

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Vesali in the grove outside the city to the west.

Now on that occasion Sunakkhatta, son of the Licchavis, had recently left this Dhamma and Discipline. He was making this statement before the Vesali assembly: “The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma (merely) hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him, and when he teaches the Dhamma to anyone, it leads him when he practices it to the complete destruction of suffering.

Then, when it was morning, the Venerable Sariputta dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Vesali for alms. Then he heard Sunakkhatta, son of the Licchavis, making this statement before the Vesali assembly. When he had wandered for alms in Vesali and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, he sat down at one side and told the Blessed One what Sunakkhatta was saying.

The Blessed One said: “Sariputta, the misguided man Sunakkhatta is angry, and his words are spoken out of anger. Thinking to discredit the Tathagata, he actually praises him; for it is a praise of the Tathagata to say of him: ‘When he teaches the Dhamma to anyone, it leads him when he practices it to the complete destruction of suffering.’

“Sariputta, this misguided man Sunakkhatta will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘That Blessed One is Accomplished, fully enlightened, Perfect in True Knowledge and Conduct, Sublime, Knower of Worlds, Incomparable Guide of persons to be tamed, Teacher of Gods and Humans, Enlightened, Blessed.

“And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘That Blessed One enjoys the various kinds of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain, as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he wields bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world.’

“And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, that Blessed One hears both kinds of sounds, the heavenly and the human, those that are far as well as near.’

“And he will never infer of me according to Dhamma: ‘That Blessed One encompasses with his own mind, the minds of other beings.
a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust;
a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate;
a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion;
a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted;
an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted;
a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed;
a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated;
a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated.’

Ten Powers of a Tathagata

“Sariputta, the Tathagata has these ten Tathagata’s powers, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. What are the ten?

(1) “Here, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the possible as possible and the impossible as impossible. And that [70] is a Tathagata’s power that the Tathagata has, by virtue of which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.

(2) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the results of actions undertaken, past, future and present, with possibilities and with causes. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(3) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the ways leading to all destinations. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(4) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the world with its many and different elements. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(5) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is how beings have different inclinations. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(6) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the disposition of the faculties of other beings, other persons. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(7) “Again, the Tathagata understands as it actually is the defilement, the cleansing and the emergence in regard to the jhanas, liberations, concentrations and attainments. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(8) “Again, the Tathagata recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. That too is a Tathagata’s power.

(9) “Again, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, the Tathagata sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill-conducted in body, speech and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, [71] after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well-conducted in body, speech and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. That too is a Tathagata’s power…

(10) “Again, by realizing it for himself with direct knowledge, the Tathagata here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints. That too is a Tathagata’s power that a Tathagata has, by virtue of which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.

20. “The Tathagata has these ten Tathagata’s powers, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.

21. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me: ‘The recluse Gotama does not have any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. The recluse Gotama teaches a Dhamma (merely) hammered out by reasoning, following his own line of inquiry as it occurs to him’ — unless he abandons that assertion and that state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as (surely as if he had been) carried off and put there he will wind up in hell. Just as a bhikkhu possessed of virtue, concentration and wisdom would here and now enjoy final knowledge, so it will happen in this case, I say, that unless he abandons that assertion and that state of mind and relinquishes that view, then as (surely as if he had been) carried off and put there he will wind up in hell.

Four Kinds of Intrepidity

22. “Sariputta, the Tathagata has these four kinds of intrepidity, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma. What are the four?

23. “Here, I see no ground on which any recluse or brahman or god or Mara or Brahma or anyone at all in the world could, in accordance with the Dhamma, accuse me thus: ‘While you claim full enlightenment, you are not fully enlightened in regard to certain things.’ [72] And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness and intrepidity.

24. “I see no ground on which any recluse… or anyone at all could accuse me thus: ‘While you claim to have destroyed the taints, these taints are undestroyed by you.’ And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness and intrepidity.

25. “I see no ground on which any recluse… or anyone at all could accuse me thus: ‘Those things called obstructions by you are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.’ And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness and intrepidity.

26. “I see no ground on which any recluse… or anyone at all could accuse me thus: ‘When you teach the Dhamma to someone, it does not lead him when he practices it to the complete destruction of suffering.’ And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness and intrepidity.

27. “A Tathagata has these four kinds of intrepidity, possessing which he claims the herd-leader’s place, roars his lion’s roar in the assemblies, and sets rolling the Wheel of Brahma.

28. “Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me… he will wind up in hell.

The Eight Assemblies

“Sariputta, there are these eight assemblies. What are the eight? An assembly of nobles, an assembly of brahmans, an assembly of householders, an assembly of recluses, an assembly of gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings, an assembly of gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three, an assembly of Mara’s retinue, an assembly of Brahmas. Possessing these four kinds of intrepidity, the Tathagata approaches and enters these eight assemblies.

“I recall having approached many hundred assemblies of nobles… many hundred assemblies of brahmans… many hundred assemblies of householders… many hundred assemblies of recluses… many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings… many hundred assemblies of gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three… many hundred assemblies of Mara’s retinue… many hundred assemblies of Brahmas. And formerly I had sat with them there and talked with them and held conversations with them, yet I see no ground for thinking that fear or timidity might come upon me there. And seeing no ground for that, I abide in safety, fearlessness and intrepidity.

“Sariputta, when I know and see thus, should anyone say of me… he will wind up in hell.

Destinations   Leave a comment


The Five Destinations and Nibbana

BUDDHA SAYS “Sariputta, there are these five destinations. What are the five? Hell, the animal realm, the realm of ghosts, human beings and gods.

1) “I understand hell, and the path and way leading to Realms of Hell. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell.

Suppose there were a charcoal pit deeper than a man’s height full of glowing coals without flame or smoke; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same charcoal pit. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves, so conducts himself, has taken such a path, that he will come to this same charcoal pit’; and then later on he sees that he has fallen into that charcoal pit and is experiencing extremely painful, racking, piercing feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… piercing feelings.

(2) “I understand the Animal Realm, and the path and way leading to the animal realm. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the animal realm.

Suppose there were a cesspit deeper than a man’s height full of filth; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same cesspit. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves… that he will come to this same cesspit’; and then later on he sees that he has fallen into that cesspit and is experiencing painful, racking, piercing feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… piercing feelings.

(3) “I understand the Realm of Ghosts, and the path and way leading to the realm of ghosts. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the realm of ghosts.

Suppose there were a tree growing on uneven ground with scanty foliage casting a dappled shade; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same tree. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves… that he will come to this same tree’; and then later on he sees that he is sitting or lying in the shade of that tree experiencing much painful feeling. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… much painful feeling.

(4) “I understand Human beings Realm, and the path and way leading to the human world. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear among human beings.

 Suppose there were a tree growing on even ground with thick foliage casting a deep shade; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same tree. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves… that he will come to this same tree’; and then later on he sees that he is sitting or lying in the shade of that tree experiencing much pleasant feeling. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… much pleasant feeling

(5) “I understand the gods, and the path and way leading to the World of the Gods. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, in the heavenly world.

Suppose there were a mansion, and it had an upper chamber plastered within and without, shut off, secured by bars, with shuttered windows, and in it there was a couch spread with rugs, blankets and sheets, with a deerskin coverlet, with a canopy as well as crimson pillows for both (head and feet); and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed to that same mansion. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves… that he will come to this same mansion’; and later on he sees that he is sitting or lying in that upper chamber in that mansion experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… extremely pleasant feelings

(6) “I understand Nibbana, and the path and way leading to Nibbana. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, by realizing it for himself with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.

Suppose there were a pond with clean, agreeable, cool water, transparent, with smooth banks, delightful, and nearby a dense wood; and then a man scorched and exhausted by hot weather, weary, parched and thirsty, came by a path going in one way only and directed towards that same pond. Then a man with good sight on seeing him would say: ‘This person so behaves… that he will come to this same pond’; and then later on he sees that he has plunged into the pond, bathed, drunk and relieved all his distress, fatigue and fever and has come out again and is sitting or lying in the wood experiencing extremely pleasant feelings. So too, by encompassing mind with mind… extremely pleasant feelings.

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